• Kalman filters are based on linear dynamical systems discretised in the time domain. They are modelled on a Markov chain built on linear operators perturbed by Gaussian noise. The state of the system is represented as a vector of real numbers. At each discrete time increment, a linear operator is applied to the state to generate the new state, with some noise mixed in, and optionally some information from the controls on the system if they are known. Then, another linear operator mixed with more noise generates the visible outputs from the hidden state. The Kalman filter may be regarded as analogous to the hidden Markov model, with the key difference that the hidden state variables are continuous (as opposed to being discrete in the hidden Markov model). Additionally, the hidden Markov model can represent an arbitrary distribution for the next value of the state variables, in contrast to the Gaussian noise model that is used for the Kalman filter. There is a strong duality between the equations of the Kalman Filter and those of the hidden Markov model. A review of this and other models is given in (Roweis and Ghahramani, 1999)